EU hopes to curb exodus from Eritrea through development aid
ADDIS ABABA: The European Union said on Tuesday it hopes development aid to Eritrea will stem a growing exodus of Eritreans attempting the dangerous journey to Europe to claim asylum there.
Eritrea is now the second largest source of migrants to arrive in Italy by boat, after Syria. The highly perilous crossing of the Mediterranean on overcrowded, rickety boats claimed around 3,000 lives last year.
The United Nations and rights groups say poor human rights conditions in Eritrea are to blame for the outflow of people. Some have called for measures against the government. Asmara denies the charges.
Neven Mimica, the EU Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development, told Reuters in Addis Ababa that the EU would try to address social and economic exclusion in migrants’ countries of origin in a bid to halt the crisis.
The number migrants are rising sharply: During the first two months of 2015, arrivals to the EU via Italy were up 43 percent versus the same period of 2014.
“In that context in Eritrea, we see that we need to assist such processes that would be beneficial for the overall advancing of the human rights and democracy framework, but also that would address the long-term development needs,” Mimica said.
The U.N. refugee agency UNHCR says the number of Eritrean asylum seekers in Europe tripled to nearly 37,000 in the first 10 months of 2014, of whom 34,000 came by sea.
Earlier this month, an interim report of a U.N. investigation said Eritrea was ignoring human rights laws and exerting pervasive state control and ruthless repression on the population.
According to EU diplomats, Brussels is planning a multi-million euro development package that Eritrea will be allowed to spend on energy and other sectors.
The EU approved a major aid package for Eritrea in 2007, worth 122 million euros (87 million pounds) in aid over a six-year period.
Eritrea declared independence from Ethiopia in 1993 and remains at loggerheads with Addis Ababa, the United States’ main regional ally.
(Reporting by Aaron Maasho; Editing by George Obulutsa and Raissa Kasolowsky)
The state of Eritrea, which became an independent nation more than 20 years ago; depended for its survival on the remittance money from the huge diaspora and foreign aid; until the rupture of relations and military conflict with Ethiopia in 1998. In order to survive the sudden de-coupling of its economy with the huge economy of its neighbor; and maintain the punishing cost of war; the state mobilized a large percentage of the adult bodied population, and resources of the country for war; war economy has therefore become a permanent feature.
However, a large amount of money from gold and other metals has since overtaken; the dwindling flow of remittance money from some of the disgruntled diaspora. Has Eritrea succumbed to the “Dutch Disease, or Resource Curse” phenomenon; as many countries of the Third World and particularly Africa had been? It probably didn’t; confounding many economists. Eritrea may likely remain immune from it for a longer period of time. What factors made it “escape” from it?
Countries that succumb to the Dutch Disease suffer from the sudden availability of hard currency; which has a deleterious effect on the manufacturing and export sector. Awash with hard currency, the local currency will increase its value; putting many of the goods produced domestically in unfair competition with the rest of the world. Awash with hard currency, regimes often spend large amount of money on social services; which had been neglected for years. This policy often results in the indirect-diversion of labor to the sector; leading to massive inflation. Venezuela is an excellent example.
Eritrea, however, doesn’t seem to keep any significant amount of its mine-generating hard currency in the central bank. It depends on the informal economy with little transparency to its budget and debt accrued over the years. The recent scandal on the close to 700 million dollars stashed away in a Swiss bank is a good illustration. That may not be the entire amount money kept hidden in foreign institutions. Is this money a “sovereign wealth”; money kept for hard times and the future generations as Norway, Australia, Canada do? It’s most unlikely for the countries mentioned are democracies. In addition, Eritrea, is not a welfare state notwithstanding the jargon on justice.
Eritrea’s expenditure on social services is extremely small compared to its huge expenditure on its military; estimated by some in several hundred thousand. It has outsourced the upkeep of its significant percentage of its population to the huge diaspora; who hate as they may seem the regime, would not refrain from sending money to their relatives. The inflation that ensues is not from any major expenditure on social services by the regime, however. Unemployed people, including hundreds of thousands of people in the army, who earn only about 2 dollars a day; depend for their livelihood on this sector. The state of Eritrea has other important uncanny methods of keeping itself from the Dutch Disease.
The United Nations, human rights organization, and others have lately been reporting on the systemic use of thousands of people; graduates from the Eritrean National Service work for free or pittance for the government in the civil sector, the party owned farms and factories, and business entities run by army generals. Like a vacuum machine, the state sucks most of the able bodied people in the land into its war economy; leaving them little agency to manage their lives. Prior to their being corralled by the state; the large majority were teen age students; and the rest unemployed, underemployed people; subsisting on donations from people living abroad.
There was no manufacturing sector to begin with in Eritrea; having endured a thirty years the factories from the past were in ruins; with little chance for recovery. More alarmingly, the command economy had a stranglehold on the private sector leaving neither capital nor labor for its existence. In other words; a large majority of the people had no job or were partially employed for years. The regime’s panacea for this was a massive militarization; not even sparing the millions of poor farmers eking a poor existence. The highly glorified “self-sufficient” economy of Eritrea is nothing but a thorough war economy.
In sum, the purpose of this article is to encourage economists and development experts to explore the lethal effect of revenues from precious commodities by a totalitarian state. In comparison with the ravages of the state such as Eritrea’s, the lot of millions of people living under a Dutch Disease, or Resource curse is much humane and tolerable. Arguably, humanitarian emergencies of the magnitude, which exists in Eritrea; rarely happens in countries afflicted with the Dutch Disease.
A Policy Puzzle of U.S. Goals and Alliances in the Middle East – NYTimes.com
ወጽዓ ደቂ-ኣንስትዮን መበገሲኡን
ደቂ-ሰባት ከም ሓደ ዓይነት ዘርኢ መጠን፡- ከምቶም ኩሎም ሂወት ዘለዎም ፍጡራት ብኽልተ ጾታ ማለት ብኣንስታውን ተባዕታውን ጽምዶ ዝቖሙ ባህርያዊ ፈልሲ ምኻኖም መብርሂ ዘድልዮ ኣይኮነን። የግዳስ ናብ ሓደ መብርሂ ዘድልዮ መንገዲ ዘእትወና ኣምር ብምኻኑ እዩ። እዞም ምስሎም ክልተ ሂወቶም ግን ብሓደ መጥመሪ ዝተወደነ ሕ/ሰብኣዊ ቡቕሎ፡ ከልተ ገጽ ናይ ሓደ ቅርሺ ከንሶም፡ ከምቲ ዝጠመየ ዝብእስ ቁስሉ እንተበልዐ ዝተዓንገለ ይመስሎ ዝብሃል፡ እቲ ሓደ ክፋል ናይዚ ሕ/ሰብዊ ቡቕሎ፡ ናይ ኣካያድነታዊ ስልጣን ተቖጻጺሩ፡ ነቲ ባህርያዊ ክውንነት ክኸድዖ ጀመረ። ንካላኣይ ሸነኹ (መዋድንቱ) ዓሚጹን ጎዲኡን ሓደ ጎኑ ጥራይ ከህጥር ህርዲግ ኣብ ምባል ኣተወ። እዚ ሸነኽ፡ ቃንዛ ናይ ዝተጎዘዘ ጎድኑ ንኸይስመዖን ከየቕልበሉን ብጭካነ ዝወሰነ፡ ኣብ ናይ ጥልመትን ነብሰ ርመሳን ዘንብር መርሆ ክኽተል ዝመረጸ ሸነኽ ኮነ።
ይኹን እምበር፡ እዚ ክልቲኡ ጾታ ኣብ ምቋምን ምቕጻልን ናይ ሓደ ሕብረተሰብ ምዕሩይ ትዕድልት ሓላፍነት ዘለዎ ምኻኑ ብታኣምር ዘይዝለል ባህርያዊ ሓቂ’ዩ። በዚ መጠን ክረአ ከሎ ኣምብኣር ግደ ደቅ-ኣንስትዮ ኣብ ኩሉ ከይዲ ምዕባለ ሕ/ሰብ ወሳኒ ኣካል ምኻኑ እዩ። እቲ ባህርያዊ ሓቂ እዚ ከንሱ ግን፡ እቲ ብዘይ ህላወ ደቅ ኣንስትዮ ህላወኡ ዝብቕዕ ክፋል ሕ/ሰብ፡ ንኹሉ መሰላተን ገፊፉ ሃብታም ጸጋታተን፡ ኣፍራይ ብልሓታተን፡ ከልምሶ ተቓለሰ። ከምቲ ልዒሉ ዝተገልጸ ግን ሓደ ካብዞም ክልተ መጻምዲ ምስ ዘይህሉ እቲ ካላኣይ ክህሉ ባህርያዊ ከምዘይኮነ፡ በቲ ንዐኦም ዝፈጠረ ዝተሰርዐ ሕጊ ምኻኑ ርዱእ’ኳ እንተኾነ፡ እዚ ብፍላጥ ሓደ ዓዩን ዘንቆረ ፍርቂ ሓንጎሉ ዘመሽመሸ ሸነኽ፡ ዓቢ ናይ ምምዛንን ምስትውዓልን ተኽእሎኡ ስለዝቐተለ፡ በቲ ዝተገድዐ ኣካሉ መሪሑን ሰሪሑን ምሉእ ሕ/ሰብ ከዕግብ ድማ ስለ ዘይክል፡ ጸገማቱ ክሽፍን ዎትሩ ኣብ ዓመጽን ዓፈናን ጥራይዩ ዝምርኮስ። እቲ ናቱ ጸገም ናብ ካልእ ከጸግዕን ከድርዕን ድማ፡ ናይ ደቅ-ኣንስትዮ ኩሉንትናዊ መሰላተን ገፊፉ ከብቕዕ፡ ተምሊሱ ነዐአን ኣካለ-ጎደሎ ገይሩ ብምስራዕ ከም ሓደ ዓቢ ጸገምን ከቢድ ሸኽሚ ናይ ሕ/ሰብ ጌርካ ከም ዝቑጸራ ገይሩወን’ዩ።
ስለዝኾነ ድማዩ ሕ/ሰብ ዓለምና በዞም ነቲ ፍርቂ ኣካሎም ብኣረሜናዊ ጭካነ ጨፍሊቖም፡ በቲ ፍርቂ ጎደሎ ዝኾነ ስንኩል (ሃንድካብድ) ኣተሓሳስበኦምን ተግባሮምን ኣህዛብ ኣብ ከቢድ ህውከትን መከራን ዘቒቶም የሳቕይዎ ዘለዉ።
ወጽዓ ደቂ-ኣንስትዮ ዝጀመረሉ፡- በቲ ንመሰረታዊ መሰላት ደቅሰባት ገፊፉ ዝረግጽ፡ ብኣረሜናዊ ስርዓት ዝፍለጥ ንሓይሊ ከም እንኮን መተካእታ ዘይብሉ ሕጊ ገይሩ ብምቕራጽ፡ ዝገዝእ ዝነበረ ስርዓተ ዓመጽን ዓፈናን፡ ስርዓተ ጊላነትዩ።
ኣብቲ ቅድሚኡ ዝነበረ ፈላሚ ሕ/ሰብኣዊ ስርዓተ ምዕባለ፡ ደቂ ሰባት ብሓባር ሰሪሖም ብርትዓውነት ተኻፊሎም፡ ድኹማቶምን ጽጉማቶም ሓንጊሮም ሓብሒቦም ዝጎዓዝሉ ዝነበሩ እዋን፡ ከም ሓደ ዘርኢ መጠን ካብ ዝተፈላለዩ ሓደገኛታት እንስሳን ባህርያዊ ተጻብኦታት ተጠርኒፎም እናተኸላኸሉ ተሓቓቒፎም ብሰላም ይካየዱ ከምዝነበሩ ይፈለጥ። እዚ እዋን’ዚ ዘመነ ፍልመ-ዴሳዊ እናታዊ ስርዓተ ምዕባለ ተባሂሉ ድማ ይጽዋዕ።
ግዜ እናኸደ፡ መልክዕ ናብራ መቐይሮ (ለውጥ) ክጎዛጎዝ ጀመረ። መንፈስ ብሕታውነትን ናይ ብሕቲ ዋንነትን እናደፈኣ መጸሞ፡ እቶም ሓያላት ነቶሞ ድኽም ዝበሉ እናዓምረሩ ኣብ ትሕቲ ምሉእ ቁጽጽሮም ኣእተውዎም። በዚ ኣቢሉ ድማ እቲ ሰላምን ምትሕልላይን ምትሕብሓብ ዝሰፈኖ ስርዓተ ሓባርነት ተሳዕረ።
ስለዚ ድማ እቶም ብሰላም ናብረኦም ዝመርሑ ዝነብሩ ህዝብታት፡ ጥሪቶም ንብረቶም መሬቶም ኩሉ መሰላትም ብሓያላት ተዘሚቶም ኣብ ትሕቲ ምሉእ ዋንነት ጎይቶት ኣተዉ። ጊሎት ድማ ተሰምዩ፡ ጎይቶት ሓይሎም ዝያዳ ንምድልዳል ግዝኣቶም ንምስፍሕፋሕ ዝኣክል፡ ካለኦት ከምኣቶም እኩባትን ዱልዱላትን ክወሩ ንጊሎት ከም ናይ ውግእ ሓይሊ (ሰራዊት)ን ካልእን ይግልገሉሎም ነበሩ። ዝበዝሑ ጊሎት ዝወነነ ዝሓየለን ዝሰፍሐ ግዝኣት ይህልዎ ምንባሩ ይፍለጥ።
እቲ ዘመን፡ ዘመን ሓይሊ ስለ ዝኾነ ኩሉ ሕይል ዝበለ ብዓቕሙ ነቶም ድኽም ዝበሉ ክቆጻጸሮምን ክውንኖምን ባህርያዊ ኮነ። ቀንዲ ካብዞም ኣብ ዘበነ ሓያላት ድኹማት ዝቑጸሩ፡ ሕጂ‘ውን ገና ዘይትረፈ ዘሎ፡ ደቂ-ኣንስትዮን ቆልዑትን እዮም። ብዚ ምኽንያት ብኻልኦት ክውነኑን ክርገጹን ግድን ነይሩ።
ኣብቲ እዋን፡ ጊሎት ብምሎኦም ነቲ ዝገዝኦም ዝነበረ ወናኒኦም ጎይታ ብሓባር ከገልግሉ ከለዉ፡ እተን ደቂ ኣንስትዮ ግን ኣብ ሓደ እዋን ንኽልተ ዝተፈላለየ ደረጃታት ዘለዎም ጎይቶት ማለት ንጎይታ ቁጽሪ ሓደን፡ ጎይታ ቁጽሪ ክልተን ንድርብ ጎይቶት የገልግላን ይግዛኣን። እቲ ጎይታ ቁጽሪ ሓደ፡ ዝዓበየን ንኹሎም ብማዕረ ዝገዝእን ክኸውን ከሎ፡ እቲ ጎይታ ቑጽሪ ክልተ ድማ እቲ ናይ ገዛ (መናብርቲ) ማለትዩ። ስለዚ ኣብ ደገ ሓቢሮም ንዝዓበየ ጎይታ ከገልግሉ ውዒሎም ናብ መንበሪኦም ምስተመልሱ ድማ፡ ወየ ነታ መናብርቱ “ሰበይቱ”ን ቆልዑትን ጎይታ ዝኾነ ናይ ገዛ ገዛኢ፡ ስራሕ ውዒሉ ከዕርፍ ስለ ዘለዎ፡ እታ ናቱ ውንንቲ ዝኾነት ጊልኡ፡ እግሩ ሓጺባ ተሳሊማ ኢድ ነሲኣ መግቡን ኩሉ ጠለባቱን ድሕሪ ምምላኣ፡ ንወየ መሕደሪኣ ዝኾነ ጥሕና እኽሊ (ቀለብ)ን ካልእን ከተዳሉ ኣብ ድሕሪ መጥሓን መለንቀጢ መሬት ይወግሓ።
መዋእላት ሓሊፉ ስርዓተ ጊላነት ብመስፍንነት ተተኪኡ እቲ ወዲ ተባዕታይ ብተዋፋራይ ክጽዋዕ ከሎ፡ እታ ጓል ኣንስተይቲ ግን ብጊላኣ ተረፈት።
ጎይታ ገቢቱዎ ዝጸንሐ ምሬት፡ ተካኢኡ መስፍን ካብቲ ዝለመዐ መሬት ዝኣኽሎ ኣትሪፉ፡ እቶም ተዋፋሮ ሕርሽኡ ኣልሚዖ ዘሪኦም ሓፊሶም ኣጻፊፎም ክእክብሉ፡ ካብቲ ዘየድልዮ ረቂቕ መሬት ዓስቦም ቃጸዓሎም።
ተዋፋሮ ወላ’ካ ዝተዋህቦም ምሬት እኹል እንተዘይኮነ፡ ፈሓሒሮም ፎጋፊጎም ከከም ዓቕሞም ዝነባበሩላ ናይ ሕርሻን ቦታን፡ ናይ መጠሲ መሬት ክውንኑ ከለዉ ደቂ ኣንስትዮ ግን በታ ኣብ ዘመነ ጊላነት ዝተዘመትኣ ብዝተምትኣ ከዳ ኣብ ባዶ ኢደን ተረፋ። ስለዚ ደቂ-ኣንስትዮ ኣብቲ ብዘበነ ጊላነት ዝተበየነለን ናይ ዓመጽን ኣረሜናዊ ግፍዒ ብይን፡ ገና ክሳዕ ሕጂ ብእኡ ክግዛኣ ተፈርደለን።